Total R&D personnel and researchers by sectors of performance, as % of total labour force and total employment, and by sex [rd_p_perslf]
Last update: 24-09-2020
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SEX
PROF_POS
SECTPERF
UNIT
TIME
GEO
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
European Union - 27 countries (from 2020) 1.5358(e) : 1.6676 : 1.7277 : 1.8048(e) : 1.9476 :
European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020) 1.5513(e) 1.6159(e) 1.6888 : 1.7568 : 1.8458(e) : 1.9944 :
Euro area - 19 countries (from 2015) 1.6752(e) : 1.8187 : 1.8781 : 1.9625(e) : 2.0873 :
Belgium 1.8614 1.8287 1.9602 : 2.049 : 2.308 : 2.6114 :
Bulgaria 0.6385 0.6148 0.6302 0.6561 0.6713 0.7701 0.9033 1.0096 0.9524 1.0682
Czechia 1.4549 1.5004 1.599 1.6914 1.7785 1.87 1.9252 1.9111 2.0529 2.1539
Denmark 2.9501 2.9965 3.0413 3.0488 3.0779 3.0388 3.0829 3.0735 3.1659(p) :
Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG) 1.8945 : 2.0653 : 2.1092 : 2.2274 : 2.3071 :
Estonia 1.4871 1.5241 1.5235 1.5509 1.5701 1.6191 1.5121 1.4033 1.4426 1.4233
Ireland 1.4989 1.5245(e) 1.6596 1.0443 2.1651 : 2.1059 : 2.2112 :
Greece : : 1.4453(b) : 1.7283 : 2.0266 : 2.0115 :
Spain 1.5528 1.552 1.5202 1.4729 1.4457 1.4591 1.4854 1.5086 1.5708 1.6335
France 1.6691 1.8181(b) 1.8847 1.9526 1.9756 1.9774 : 2.0512 2.1158(p) :
Croatia 0.9598 0.9866 0.9374 0.925 0.9389 0.8859 0.9307 1.0317 1.0852 1.1905
Italy 1.4633 1.4387 1.4297 1.4671 1.5008 1.4822 1.5586 1.7244(b) 1.9049 2.0793
Cyprus 0.6593 0.6425 0.665 0.6425 0.7052 0.696 0.7073 0.7576 0.7962 0.8812
Latvia 0.8564 0.8872 1.0038 1.0726 1.0473 1.1462 1.1692 1.1524 1.1938 1.2835
Lithuania 1.2322 1.2659 1.541 1.5339 1.5843 1.6934 1.516 1.56 1.6884 1.7403
Luxembourg 2.5326 : 2.594 : 2.2869 1.0279 2.3838 : 2.3971 :
Hungary 1.2702 1.2944 1.3219 1.3244 1.3543 1.2958 1.2544 1.2026 1.3348 1.7326(b)
Malta 0.9218 1.0506 1.2119 1.2714 1.1737 1.1672 1.1529 1.12 1.0969 1.0296
Netherlands 1.2237 1.4823 2.0054(b) 2.131(b) 2.119 2.1786 2.142 2.1447 2.1688 2.4425
Austria 2.3355 : 2.585 : 2.7468 : 2.9213 : 2.9558 :
Poland 0.7097 0.769 0.793 0.8174 0.8516 0.8947 0.9229 1.0118 1.4143 1.586
Portugal 1.7154 1.7793 1.831 1.8277 1.9031 1.9484 2.0871 2.0988 2.1973 2.3486
Romania 0.4472 0.4361 0.4815(b) 0.4822 0.4911 0.4837 0.4905 0.5104 0.5084 0.5106
Slovenia 1.6777 1.7672 2.1591(b) 2.1051 2.1487 2.1244 2.0799 2.0389 2.1754 2.3284
Slovakia 0.9473 1.0433 1.0718 1.0716 1.0293 1.0648 1.0574 1.2145 1.2277 1.3185
Finland 3.0059 3.0364 3.0647 3.0099 3.0108 2.954 2.9053 2.7681 2.756 2.7732
Sweden 2.4215(be) : 2.5711(e) : 2.6981(e) : 2.7482(e) : 2.5392 :
United Kingdom 1.655(e) 1.7064(e) 1.8284(e) 1.8628(e) 1.9477(e) 2.0493(e) 2.1114(e) 2.1731(e) 2.2965(e) 2.377(e)
Iceland 2.9715 : 2.8023(b) : 2.8029(b) : 3.1856 3.2726 3.281 3.213
Norway 2.5477 2.5328 2.5439 2.5535 2.6122 2.7346 2.8759 3.0185 3.191 3.2161
Switzerland : : : 2.6586 : : 2.7028 : 2.6679 :
Montenegro : : 0.8855 : 0.8956 0.8962 0.8924(d) 0.8217 0.8336 0.8725
North Macedonia 0.262 0.2844 0.2387 0.2966 : : 0.4531 0.4656 0.4291 0.434
Serbia : : : : : 0.7176 0.7824 0.7673 0.7394 0.742
Turkey 0.5687(e) 0.597(e) 0.6375(e) 0.699(e) 0.7194(e) 0.7608(e) 0.776 0.8139 0.8653 0.9238
Russia 0.9808(e) 0.9758(e) 0.9703(e) 0.961(e) : : : : : :
United States : : : : : : : : : :
China except Hong Kong : : : : : : : : : :
Japan : : : : : : : : : :
South Korea 1.9137 2.0209 2.1161 : : : : : : :
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Available flags:
b break in time series
c confidential
d definition differs, see metadata
e estimated
f forecast
n not significant
p provisional
r revised
s Eurostat estimate
u low reliability
z not applicable
Source of data: Eurostat