Total R&D personnel by sectors of performance, occupation and sex [rd_p_persocc]
Last update: 24-09-2020
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SECTPERF
PROF_POS
SEX
UNIT
TIME
GEO
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
European Union - 27 countries (from 2020) 3,155,147(e) : 3,401,865 : 3,550,680 : 3,719,732(e) : 4,043,689 :
European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020) 3,662,671(e) 3,793,265(e) 3,967,634 : 4,160,955 : 4,390,018(e) : 4,783,505 :
Euro area - 19 countries (from 2015) 2,623,281(e) : 2,838,074 : 2,952,338 : 3,090,016(e) : 3,317,464 :
Belgium 88,770 88,803 94,424 : 100,423 : 113,576 : 129,002 :
Bulgaria 21,971 20,823 20,810 21,677 22,307 25,484 29,591 32,306 31,221 34,610
Czechia 75,788 77,903 82,283 87,528 92,714 97,353 100,128 99,875 107,734 113,447
Denmark 83,931 84,562 85,491 84,999 85,165 84,387 86,415 87,349 90,862(p) :
Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG) 777,327 : 835,127 : 860,842 : 915,857 : 971,157 :
Estonia 9,904 10,074 10,131 10,205 10,284 10,492 9,889 9,234 9,593 9,479
Ireland 33,875 33,630(e) 36,214 22,702 47,458 : 46,752 : 50,460 :
Greece : : 70,229(b) : 82,684 : 96,018 : 94,560 :
Spain 358,803 360,229 353,911 342,901 333,134 332,871 338,179 341,809 354,333 369,291
France 478,857 523,648(b) 542,447 565,912 575,351 575,830 : 599,246 618,612(p) :
Croatia 18,102 18,459 17,258 16,881 17,003 16,548 17,358 18,632 19,609 21,226
Italy 354,513 348,215 347,005 364,315 372,444 371,117 389,604 435,283(b) 482,703 526,620
Cyprus 2,591 2,628 2,793 2,737 2,997 2,958 2,921 3,091 3,320 3,754
Latvia 9,155 9,174 10,108 10,790 10,326 11,072 11,283 11,028 11,293 12,129
Lithuania 18,483 18,913 22,391 22,103 22,751 24,470 21,739 22,355 23,773 24,591
Luxembourg 5,749 : 6,070 : 5,740 2,652 6,532 : 6,856 :
Hungary 52,522 53,991 55,386 56,486 58,237 57,185 56,235 54,636 60,932 79,387(b)
Malta 1,567 1,807 2,133 2,314 2,230 2,311 2,375 2,408 2,479 2,502
Netherlands 105,217 127,154 172,105(b) 185,059(b) 185,246 189,037 186,762 187,750 190,959 216,994
Austria 96,502 : 107,949 : 117,043 : 126,171 : 131,032 :
Poland 120,923 129,792 134,551 139,653 145,635 153,475 157,921 171,610 239,283 266,283
Portugal 88,532 91,917 94,077 92,977 95,347 96,952 103,291 103,680 109,251 116,864
Romania 42,420 39,065 42,363(b) 42,674 43,375 42,963 43,448 44,386 44,801 44,733
Slovenia 17,045 17,972 21,548(b) 20,967 21,272 21,053 20,633 20,022 21,993 23,633
Slovakia 25,388 28,128 28,596 28,880 27,823 28,825 28,752 33,252 33,467 35,770
Finland 79,475 79,979 80,817 79,372 78,943 77,306 76,090 72,387 72,621 73,905
Sweden 116,209(be) : 125,648(e) : 133,906(e) : 138,620(e) : 131,783 :
United Kingdom 507,524(e) 524,333(e) 565,769(e) 580,452(e) 610,276(e) 646,201(e) 670,286(e) 695,925(e) 739,816(e) 771,139(e)
Iceland 5,111 : 4,792(b) : 4,905(b) : 5,766 6,087 6,201 6,201
Norway 64,126 63,876 64,717 66,085 68,204 71,947 76,557 80,684 84,975 86,610
Switzerland : : : 117,457 : : 124,246 : 125,045 :
Montenegro : : 2,134 : 2,230 2,339 2,356(d) 2,194 2,234 2,382
North Macedonia 2,413 2,645 2,227 2,773 : : 4,286 4,372 4,064 4,106
Serbia 20,067 19,341 19,742 19,646 21,044 21,880 23,629 23,542 22,782 22,971
Turkey 135,043(e) 147,417(e) 164,287(e) 184,301(e) 196,321(e) 213,686(e) 224,284 242,213 266,478 289,791
Bosnia and Herzegovina : : : 1,705 2,167 3,189 : : : :
Russia 742,433(e) 736,540(e) 735,273(e) 727,263(e) 727,029(e) 732,274(e) 738,857 : 707,887 682,580
United States : : : : : : : : : :
China except Hong Kong 3,183,687 3,542,244 4,017,578 4,617,120 5,018,218 5,351,472 5,482,528 5,830,741 6,213,627 6,571,372
Japan 1,152,787(d) 1,159,546(d) 1,145,455(d) 1,132,376(d) 1,140,437(d) 1,189,017(d) 1,181,856(d) 1,180,402(d) 1,199,237(d) 1,209,426(d)
South Korea 466,824 500,124 531,131 562,601 569,333 605,604 619,907 624,910 650,243 691,060
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b break in time series
c confidential
d definition differs, see metadata
e estimated
f forecast
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p provisional
r revised
s Eurostat estimate
u low reliability
z not applicable
Source of data: Eurostat