R&D personnel by sector of performance, professional position and sex [rd_p_persocc]
Last update: 10-03-2021
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SECTPERF
PROF_POS
SEX
UNIT
TIME
GEO
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
European Union - 27 countries (from 2020) 2,191,119(e) 2,256,720 2,321,035 2,355,600 2,399,423 2,479,914 2,552,031 2,694,115 2,835,810 2,929,295(p)
European Union - 28 countries (2013-2020) 2,541,885(e) 2,612,978 2,677,519 2,732,943 2,795,704 2,893,774 2,969,421 3,137,711 3,299,286 3,415,383(p)
Euro area - 19 countries (from 2015) 1,837,861(e) 1,888,457 1,936,991 1,962,509 1,990,705 2,059,122 2,116,409 2,223,024 2,321,633 2,403,144(p)
Belgium 60,075 62,895 67,005 67,899 72,794 77,520 79,109(e) 82,686 88,031(e) 96,158(p)
Bulgaria 16,574 16,986 16,758 17,545 19,335 22,492 25,060 23,290 25,809 26,399
Czechia 52,290 55,697 60,329 61,976 64,443 66,433 65,783 69,736 74,969 79,245(p)
Denmark 56,623 57,585 57,734 57,744 58,361 60,243 62,775 60,239 59,778 62,229(p)
Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG) 548,723 575,099 591,261 588,615 605,252 640,516 657,894 686,349 707,704 734,200(e)
Estonia 5,277 5,724 5,855 5,858 5,790 5,636 5,772 6,048 6,183 6,448(p)
Ireland 19,722(e) 21,591(e) 29,284 31,870 33,494 32,052 29,726 35,771 35,817(e) 37,310
Greece : 36,913(b) 37,361 42,188 43,316 49,658 41,790 47,585 51,279 54,833(p)
Spain 222,022 215,079 208,831 203,302 200,233 200,866 205,873 215,745 225,696 231,413(p)
France 397,756(b) 402,492 411,780 418,141 417,129 428,643(p) 432,245 441,509(p) 452,970(p) 463,738(e)
Croatia 10,859 10,622 10,368 10,448 10,027 10,645 11,536 11,778 13,029 14,492(p)
Italy 225,632 228,094 240,179 246,764 249,467 259,167 290,040(b) 317,628 345,625 355,362(p)
Cyprus 1,302 1,299 1,245 1,247 1,284 1,246 1,356 1,535 1,826 1,870(p)
Latvia 5,563 5,432 5,593 5,396 5,739 5,570 5,120 5,378 5,806 5,923(p)
Lithuania 12,315 11,173 10,416 11,080 11,791 10,607 10,924 11,577 11,956 12,998
Luxembourg 4,972 5,191 4,743(b) 4,975 5,192 5,260 5,403 5,545 5,468 5,892(p)
Hungary 31,480 33,960 35,732 38,163 37,329 36,847 35,757 40,432 54,654(b) 56,943
Malta 1,102 1,363 1,431 1,356 1,444 1,422 1,505 1,542 1,530 1,576(p)
Netherlands 100,544 117,436(b) 122,215(b) 135,555(b) 136,174 139,382 144,482 150,399 156,875 160,234(p)
Austria 59,923(e) 61,171 65,088(e) 66,186 70,138(e) 71,396 75,165(e) 76,010 80,750(p) 84,060(p)
Poland 81,843 85,219 90,716 93,751 104,359 109,249 111,789 144,103 161,993 164,006
Portugal 47,616 49,599 47,554 46,711 46,878 47,999 50,406 54,995 58,154 61,455
Romania 26,171 29,749(b) 31,135 32,507 31,391 31,331 32,232 32,586 31,933 31,665
Slovenia 12,940 15,269(b) 14,974 15,229 14,866 14,225 14,403 14,713 15,686 16,984(p)
Slovakia 18,188 18,112 18,127 17,166 17,594 17,591 17,768 19,011 20,268 21,196
Finland 55,897 54,526(b) 54,047 52,972 52,130 50,367 47,429 48,999 50,011 51,494
Sweden 77,418(e) 78,445(e) 81,272(e) 80,957(e) 83,473(e) 83,551(e) 90,690(p) 88,928 92,011 91,172(e)
Iceland : 3,244(b) : 2,736(b) : 2,941 3,247 3,172 3,172 :
Norway 36,121 36,950 37,707 38,536 40,297 42,409 43,918 46,234 46,601 48,721
Switzerland : : 75,476 : : 81,451 : 81,751 : :
United Kingdom 350,766(e) 356,258(e) 356,484(e) 377,343(e) 396,281(e) 413,860 417,390(e) 443,597(e) 463,476(e) 486,088(p)
Montenegro : 530 : 529 600 673 624 611 682 :
North Macedonia 1,434 1,108 1,671 1,563 1,965 2,024 2,107 1,870 1,995 1,930
Serbia 17,274 17,489 17,730 18,143 19,446 21,573 21,603 20,788 20,868 20,545
Turkey 81,792(e) 92,801(e) 105,122(e) 112,969(e) 115,444(e) 122,288 136,953 153,552 172,119 182,847
Bosnia and Herzegovina : : 1,060 1,399 1,767 : : : : 2,037
Russia 839,992 839,183 828,401 826,733 829,190 833,654 : 778,155 758,462 753,796
United States : : : : : : : : : :
China except Hong Kong 2,553,829 2,882,903 3,246,840 3,532,817 3,710,580 3,758,848 3,878,057 4,033,597 4,381,444 :
Japan 877,928(d) 869,825(d) 851,132(d) 865,523(bd) 895,285(d) 875,005(d) 872,340(d) 890,749(d) 896,901(bd) :
South Korea 335,228 361,374 395,990 401,444 430,868 442,027 447,408 471,201 501,175 :
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Special value:
: not available
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
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b break in time series
c confidential
d definition differs, see metadata
e estimated
f forecast
n not significant
p provisional
r revised
s Eurostat estimate
u low reliability
z not applicable
Source of data: Eurostat